Andreas Happe: security
So a customer of mine thought about ordering a Red Team Assessment and wanted me to go through their local network beforehands — no need to make it too easy for the red teamers. The customer’s network was a typical windows network, dated but kept up to date by two admins. Microsoft Defender was rolled out at all clients, and one some servers. A laptop with Kali Linux was connected to the local network, this was my starting point.
AppSec includes all tasks that (hopefully) introduce a secure software development life cycle to development teams. Its final goal is to improve security practices and, through that, to find, fix and preferably prevent security issues within applications. It encompasses the whole application life cycle from requirements analysis, design, implementation, verification as well as maintenance. To contrast AppSec with a traditional penetration-test: the latter tries to find vulnerabilities within an already existing application while AppSec focuses upon preventing vulnerabilities from entering the application code in the first place.
Recently I had a couple of customers that needed some guidance about secure software development. I assume that this happens because I am a developer gone pen-tester so I’ve seen both side of the “problem”. Of course, suggestions differ between software stacks and the overall customer professionalism level, but there is a common starting ground that should be suitable for any professional software project. Without those, anything more advanced would be built upon shaky grounds.
During a recent presentation on HTTP Header Security I was asked for a “simple” flow chart with directions which headers can be used without too many problems. The result was this: What was the reasoning? Initially, basic headers that unify browser behavior are set. They control behavior that is already set when using modern browsers (e.g., Referrer-Policy) or unify non-standard behavior (e.g, X-Content-Type-Options: nosniff). The basic idea behind those headers is, that web developers need to make sure that their website works with those anyway (otherwise people using modern browsers might complain) so it makes sense to take care of those situations during development.
During a recent assignment the customer server was utilizing a WebSocket for some notification transport, part of my assignment was to fuzz-test the used WebSocket (and the messages transported over it). To do this, I turned to my typical tools: PortSwigger BURP only supports display of WebSocket messages but not altering and/or automated fuzzing of websocket messages. OWASP ZAP can inject and fuzz web sockets (e. g. using FuzzDB vectors), alas the tested application disconnects the websocket and thus prevents ZAP from performing the fuzzing attack.
During a recent pen-test I stumbled upon a JSON Web Token(in short: JWT) based authorization scheme. JWTs consist of three parts: header, payload and verification information. The initial header part contains the name of the algorithm that will later be used to generate the verification part of the JWT. This is dangerous as an attacker can change this information and thus (maybe) control what scheme will be used for verification by the server.
So my company moved to a new building which uses HID RFID cards for access control. These cards are typically white with some sort of numeric code printed on one side of them. I have not included an image of my card due to (later) obvious reasons.. Setting up my Proxmark3 RDV4 reader Some time ago I joined the Kickstarter for an updated version of the Proxmark3 RFID reader/writer and immediately broke it during the initial flash update.
Wireguard is recently making a splash as human-configurable low-overhead alternative to OpenVPN and IPSec. As some privacy-centric VPN providers are planning to support it (e.g., PIA) or already have a beta running (e.g., IVPN, as tested by Ars Technica) it was time for me to look into it. The Setup To get a better feeling about the used technology I directly connected my laptop to my desktop (gigabit Ethernet with no switch/router in between) and setup OpenVPN with a minimalist configuration as well as with a more realistic TLS-configuration.
I’ve wrote about about creating a simple wireless (WLAN for us right-pondian) http/https interception setup before. Mostly I’m using this as a first step when testing mobile/desktop applications. Linux’ network-manager is perfectly able to create an software access-point with most modern network cards. Alas GNOME’s configuration tool only allows for the creation of ad-hoc networks (and switching to KDE for just this is a bit overkill for me) so you have to setup the access point on the command line with nmtui or nmcli.
Recently I’ve found an old post-it with guidelines I wrote myself a couple of years back, two of those stood out: make mistakes don’t buy stupid stuff Seems like I haven’t been the most consistent person back then. The post-it got discovered during a clean-up session of my flat, the same session brought up the following stupidly-bought-and-never-used gadgets: one BBC micro:bit that should be able to capture Bluetooth Low Energy transmissions one Proxmark 3 RV4 that should be able to do some nifty RFID stuff (and that I was recently able to fix) one Realtek Software-Defined Radio USB Stick (rtl-sdr).