Andreas Happe: security

Using WSL2 to hide from EDR

TL;DR WSL2 seems to be one big lolbin when it comes to EDR Scenario/Background During a recent assumed-breach pen-test assignment I was stranded as a low-level user on a fully-updated Windows 10 Enterprise system (10.0.19045) including a deployed CrowdStrike Falcon EDR suite (6.49.16303.0). As I respect CrowdStrike I did not want to execute any malicious scripts on the host, so what to do? WSL2 to the rescue! Installation was done quite comfortable through the company’s Software Center, no local administrative rights required.

January 27, 2023 in Security

Active Directory: Using LDAP Queries for Stealthy Enumeration

During a recent assumed-breach pen-test assignment I ran into a problem: the customer had an up to date Windows Active Directory environment, CrowdStrike was rolled out as an EDR and a dedicated Incident Response Team was monitoring for alerts.. and I needed some Active Directory Enumeration to be done before I was planning out my next steps. I assumed, which later proved correctly, that just starting BloodHound or would trigger defenders and defences.

January 25, 2023 in Security

Enumerating User-Accessible Directories within Windows Network Shares

During a recent security assignment I came upon a projects folder stored on a Microsoft Active Directory server and accessible thought the network (SMB/CIFS). It had the commonly used layout of a single subdirectory per project, users should only be able to access their corresponding projects and this is configured through ACLs. Initial tests did indicate that the access rights were given away sloppily as I was able to access some of those subdirectories.

January 23, 2023 in Security

Trying my hand with hacking Active Directories with responder, mitm6, ntlmrelayx and crackmapexec

So a customer of mine thought about ordering a Red Team Assessment and wanted me to go through their local network beforehands — no need to make it too easy for the red teamers. The customer’s network was a typical windows network, dated but kept up to date by two admins. Microsoft Defender was rolled out at all clients, and on some servers. A laptop with Kali Linux was connected to the local network, this was my starting point.

October 12, 2022 in Security

What is AppSec anyways?

AppSec includes all tasks that (hopefully) introduce a secure software development life cycle to development teams. Its final goal is to improve security practices and, through that, to find, fix and preferably prevent security issues within applications. It encompasses the whole application life cycle from requirements analysis, design, implementation, verification as well as maintenance. To contrast AppSec with a traditional penetration-test: the latter tries to find vulnerabilities within an already existing application while AppSec focuses upon preventing vulnerabilities from entering the application code in the first place.

June 3, 2021 in Security AppSec

Secure Software Development Lifecycle Basics

Recently I had a couple of customers that needed some guidance about secure software development. I assume that this happens because I am a developer gone pen-tester so I’ve seen both side of the “problem”. Of course, suggestions differ between software stacks and the overall customer professionalism level, but there is a common starting ground that should be suitable for any professional software project. Without those, anything more advanced would be built upon shaky grounds.

May 23, 2021 in Security AppSec

HTTP Header Security

During a recent presentation on HTTP Header Security I was asked for a “simple” flow chart with directions which headers can be used without too many problems. The result was this: What was the reasoning? Initially, basic headers that unify browser behavior are set. They control behavior that is already set when using modern browsers (e.g., Referrer-Policy) or unify non-standard behavior (e.g, X-Content-Type-Options: nosniff). The basic idea behind those headers is, that web developers need to make sure that their website works with those anyway (otherwise people using modern browsers might complain) so it makes sense to take care of those situations during development.

April 12, 2021 in security

To Fuzz a WebSocket

During a recent assignment the customer server was utilizing a WebSocket for some notification transport, part of my assignment was to fuzz-test the used WebSocket (and the messages transported over it). To do this, I turned to my typical tools: PortSwigger BURP only supports display of WebSocket messages but not altering and/or automated fuzzing of websocket messages. OWASP ZAP can inject and fuzz web sockets (e. g. using FuzzDB vectors), alas the tested application disconnects the websocket and thus prevents ZAP from performing the fuzzing attack.

May 22, 2019 in security

JWT: Signature-vs-MAC attacks

During a recent pen-test I stumbled upon a JSON Web Token(in short: JWT) based authorization scheme. JWTs consist of three parts: header, payload and verification information. The initial header part contains the name of the algorithm that will later be used to generate the verification part of the JWT. This is dangerous as an attacker can change this information and thus (maybe) control what scheme will be used for verification by the server.

May 16, 2019 in security

Amazing (Physical) Access Control with HID RFID cards

So my company moved to a new building which uses HID RFID cards for access control. These cards are typically white with some sort of numeric code printed on one side of them. I have not included an image of my card due to (later) obvious reasons.. Setting up my Proxmark3 RDV4 reader Some time ago I joined the Kickstarter for an updated version of the Proxmark3 RFID reader/writer and immediately broke it during the initial flash update.

January 4, 2019 in security linux